Physiology of the Heart

physiology of heart

Physiology of the Heart: At any given time, the chambers of the heart may be found in one of two states: Systole: During systole, cardiac muscle tissue contracts to push blood out of the chamber. Diastole: During diastole, the cardiac muscle cells relax to allow the chamber to fill with blood.Blood pressure increases in the … Read more

Conduction System of the Heart

Conduction System of the Heart

Cardiovascular system The Conduction System of the Heart: The heart is a muscular organ the size of a closed fist that is positioned in the chest behind the sternum and above the diaphragm, between the lungs. It is encased in the pericardium. The aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and the vena cava are all connected … Read more



Atherosclerosis (or arteriosclerotic vascular disease) is a condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive buildup of plaque around the artery wall. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows arteries. The disease disrupts the flow of blood … Read more

Wound Healing

Wound Healing

The healing of skin wounds provides a classical example of the combination of regeneration and repair. Wound healing can be accomplished in one of the following two ways: (i) Healing by first intention (ii) Healing by second intention (i) Healing by first intention: One of the simplest examples of wound repair is the healing of … Read more


what is healing

Injury to tissue may result in cell death and tissue destruction. Healing, on the other hand, is the body’s response to injury in an attempt to restore normal structure and function. The process of healing involves two distinct processes: Regeneration: When healing takes place by the proliferation of parenchymal cells and usually results in complete … Read more

What are Inflammatory Mediators

inflammation mediators

Inflammatory Mediators The inflammatory response is intensified and propagated by biochemical mediators generated during inflammation. These mediators are water-soluble, diffusible compounds with local and systemic effects. Complement and complement-derived peptides, as well as kinins, are plasma-derived mediators. Complement-derived peptides (C3a, C3b, and C5a) increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, activate leukocytes, and trigger mast-cell … Read more

Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation

Acute Inflammation:The changes in acute inflammation can be conveniently described under the following two headings. I) Vascular Events a. Haemodynamic changes. b. Altered vascular permeability. II) Cellular Events a. Exudation of leukocytes. b. Phagocytosis. I) Vascular Events: Alteration in the microvasculature (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) is the earliest response to tissue injury. These alterations include … Read more

Types of inflammation

Inflammation is a vital homeostatic process that is triggered by cellular injury, regardless of how the harm occurs. Although cellular mediators generated during inflammation can trigger systemic reactions, inflammation is mostly a local phenomenon. The most severe kind of inflammatory reaction, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, can be fatal in severely ill patients. Sepsis is a … Read more

Etiology of Inflammation

Etiology of Inflammation

What is Inflammation Inflammation is a critical homeostatic process that is activated by cellular injury regardless of the mechanism of that injury. Inflammation is essentially local in nature, although cellular mediators released during inflammation may initiate systemic responses as well. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is the most extreme form of inflammatory response and may be … Read more



There are many chemicals in the bloodstream that regulate important functions of bodies. These chemicals are called electrolytes. When dissolved in water, electrolytes separate into positively and negatively charged ions. The human body’s nerve reactions and muscle functions are dependent upon the proper exchange of these electrolyte ions outside and inside cells. Examples of electrolytes … Read more