Atoms, molecules and compounds

The atom is the smallest component of an element that is capable of maintaining stability. An element is a chemical compound that only includes atoms of the same kind; for example, iron only has iron atoms. Multiple atom types can coexist in a molecule. For example, water is a complex that contains both hydrogen and … Read more

Introduction to the study of illness

study of illness

Study of illness: There are many distinct ailments, syndromes, and diseases that range in severity from very mild to extremely serious. Adopting a methodical strategy can make studying anomalies much simpler. When there are unmistakable connections between the causes (aetiology) and the effects of the abnormality (pathogenesis), the causes are described first. Aetiology The disease … Read more

Protection and survival

Protection and survival

Protection and survival: In this section, relevant activities will be outlined under the following headings: protection against the external environment, resistance and immunity, and movement and reproduction. Protection against the external environment The skin on the surface of the body mostly supplies this. The epidermis and the dermis are two layers. The superficial epidermis is … Read more

Internal communication

Communication and the nervous system Internal communication: The nervous system is a rapid communication system. The main components are shown in the figure below. The central nervous system-Internal communication The central nervous system consists of The brain, situated inside the skull The spinal cord extends from the base of the skull to the lumbar region … Read more

Homeostatic imbalance

Homeostatic imbalance Homeostatic imbalance: This occurs when an internal environmental factor’s level deviates from its normal range due to insufficient fine control. If homeostasis cannot be maintained under control, an aberrant state emerges that could endanger one’s health or even life. In the study of anatomy and physiology, the body systems are traditionally described individually, … Read more

Definition of homeostasis

What is homeostasis? The composition of the internal environment is maintained within narrow limits, and this fairly constant state is called homeostasis. Literally, this term means ‘unchanging’, but in practice, it describes a dynamic, ever-changing situation kept within narrow limits. When this balance is threatened or lost, there is a serious risk to the well-being … Read more

Levels of structural complexity

Levels of structural complexity: There are various degrees of structural complexity and organization within the body. Chemicals are at the lowest level. The body has a wide variety of molecules, which are created when two atoms unite. The body contains millions of cells, the smallest autonomous units of living matter. They cannot be seen with … Read more

How to keep liver healthy


The liver is the second largest organ in the body. The liver is the only body organ that can regenerate. The liver is responsible for more than 500 body functions. Liver functions Cleanses your blood Regulates the supply of body fuel. Produces essential body proteins. Regulates the balance of hormones. Regulates body cholesterol. Produces bile … Read more