Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

diagnosis of GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. According to the Montreal definition of GERD, GERD can be classified into esophageal and extraesophageal syndromes (Fig. 1). Patients with GERD can present with typical or atypical symptoms. If there is evidence … Read more

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Epidemiology

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Epidemiology

Introduction of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common gastrointestinal condition in ambulatory settings. In the USA, GERD remains the commonest cause of outpatient hospital visits and economic burden costs around $15-20 billion per year. Studies from the Asian subcontinent have also reported significant absenteeism, loss of work productivity, and weekly … Read more

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease As per the Montreal definition, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition that develops when gastric contents reflux into the esophagus, and cause bothersome symptoms and/or complications. Physiologically, occasional reflux is common, it is considered a disease if it causes symptoms and complications. Symptoms of GERD are classified as esophageal … Read more

Important biological molecules

Important biological molecules include carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids, nucleotides, and enzymes. Carbohydrates The carbohydrates are sugars. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and the carbon atoms are normally arranged in a ring, with the oxygen and hydrogen atoms linked to them. The structures of glucose, fructose, and sucrose are shown in the … Read more

Acids, alkalis and pH-in the body

Acids, alkalis, and pH: the number of hydrogen ions present in a solution is a measure of the acidity of the solution. The maintenance of the normal hydrogen ion concentration ([ H+]) within the body is an important factor in maintaining a stable environment, i.e. homeostasis. The pH scale-Acids, alkalis, and pH A standard scale for … Read more

Atoms, molecules and compounds

The atom is the smallest component of an element that is capable of maintaining stability. An element is a chemical compound that only includes atoms of the same kind; for example, iron only has iron atoms. Multiple atom types can coexist in a molecule. For example, water is a complex that contains both hydrogen and … Read more

Introduction to the study of illness

study of illness

Study of illness: There are many distinct ailments, syndromes, and diseases that range in severity from very mild to extremely serious. Adopting a methodical strategy can make studying anomalies much simpler. When there are unmistakable connections between the causes (aetiology) and the effects of the abnormality (pathogenesis), the causes are described first. Aetiology The disease … Read more

Protection and survival

Protection and survival

Protection and survival: In this section, relevant activities will be outlined under the following headings: protection against the external environment, resistance and immunity, and movement and reproduction. Protection against the external environment The skin on the surface of the body mostly supplies this. The epidermis and the dermis are two layers. The superficial epidermis is … Read more

Internal communication

Communication and the nervous system Internal communication: The nervous system is a rapid communication system. The main components are shown in the figure below. The central nervous system-Internal communication The central nervous system consists of The brain, situated inside the skull The spinal cord extends from the base of the skull to the lumbar region … Read more