Drug distribution in pharmacology

drug distribution

Drug distribution Drug distribution: Once a drug has gained access to the bloodstream, it gets distributed to other tissues that initially had no drug, concentration gradient being in the direction of plasma to tissues. The extent and pattern of a drug’s distribution are determined by its: lipid solubility ionization at physiological pH (a function of … Read more

Drug bioavailability

drug bioavailability

Bioavailability Bioavailability refers to the rate and extent of absorption of a drug from a dosage form as determined by its concentration-time curve in blood or by its excretion in urine. It is a measure of the fraction of administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation in the unchanged form. Bioavailability of drug injected i.v. … Read more

Drug absorption in pharmacokinetics

Drug absorption

Drug absorption The transfer of medication from its delivery site into circulation is known as absorption. The rate of absorption is just as significant as the proportion of the supplied dosage that is absorbed. The medication must penetrate biological membranes unless it is administered intravenously; absorption is regulated by the principles outlined above. Drug absorption … Read more

Membrane Transport in pharmacology

Membrane transport is essential for cellular life. As cells proceed through their life cycle, a vast amount of exchange is necessary to maintain function. Transport may involve the incorporation of biological molecules and the discharge of waste products that are necessary for normal function. Pharmacokinetics The quantitative study of drug transport in, through, and out … Read more

What are various routes of drug administration?

Routes of drug administration: most drugs can be administered by a variety of routes. The choice of appropriate route in a given situation depends both on the drug as well as patient-related factors. Mostly common sense considerations, feasibility, and convenience dictate the route to be used. Various routes of drug administration are Local routes Drugs … Read more

Essential medicines (drugs) concept

Essential medicines concept The WHO has defined Essential medicines concept as “those that satisfy the priority healthcare needs of the population.” They are selected with due regard to public health relevance, evidence of efficacy and safety, and comparative cost effectiveness. Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at … Read more

What is Drug compendia

Drug compendia Drug compendia are compilations of information on drugs in the form of monographs; without going into the theoretical concepts, mechanisms of action, and other aspects which help in understanding the subject. Pharmacopeias and formularies are brought out by the government of a country, hold legal status, and are called official compendia. In addition, … Read more

Drug nomenclature in pharmacology

Drug nomenclature A drug generally has three categories of names: Chemical name A code name, e.g. RO 15-1788 (later named flumazenil) may be assigned by the manufacturer for convenience and simplicity before an approved name is coined. It describes the substance chemically but is cumbersome and not suitable for use in prescribing. A code name … Read more

Introduction to Pharmacology

Pharmacology Introduction to Pharmacology: The science of drugs is pharmacology (Greek: pharmacon—drug; logos—discourse). In a broad sense, it is concerned with the interaction of exogenously delivered chemical molecules with living systems, or any chemical substance capable of eliciting a biological reaction. It includes all elements of drug knowledge, but especially those that are pertinent to … Read more

Functional food

A portion of functional food is defined as a portion of food that has been given an additional function (usually one related to health promotion or disease prevention) by incorporating new or more existing ingredients. The term may also refer to the process of incorporating its properties into existing edible plants, such as purple or … Read more