It occurs when calcium builds up in body tissue, blood vessels, or organs. This buildup can harden and disrupt the body’s normal processes. Calcium is transported through the bloodstream and is found in every cell. As a result, calcification can occur in almost any part of the body. About 99 % of the body’s calcium … Read more

Intracellular accumulations

Under some circumstances, cells may accumulate abnormal amounts of various substances, which may be harmless or associated with varying degrees of injury. The substance may be located in the cytoplasm, within organelles (typically lysosomes), or in the nucleus, and it may be synthesized by the affected cells or maybe produced elsewhere. There are three main … Read more

Cellular swelling in cell injury

The plasma membrane forms a barrier against excessive amounts of Na+ within the extracellular fluid from entering the cell. However, the plasma membrane is slightly “leaky” to Na+, allowing minimal amounts of Na+ to gradually move into the cell. To compensate for this, there is a perpetually active Na+ /K+ ATPase pump, which moves Na+ … Read more

Morphology of cell injury adaptive changes

Cell adaptation within limits: Morphology of cell injury adaptive changes: Most cells have the ability to adapt to changes in their environment by altering their morphology, pattern of growth, and metabolic activity. These adaptive responses may be part of the normal physiology of a cell or tissue, or they may represent an attempt to limit … Read more

Free Radical Induced Injury

free radical induced cellular damage

Free Radical Induced Injury : Most agents acting in this way cause cell damage by affecting directly cell membranes and triggering a lethal sequence of events. Free radicals are chemical species that have a single unpaired electron in outer orbit, they initiate an autocatalytic reaction which mainly occurs in reperfusion of the ischemic cell. Activated … Read more

Mechanism of Hypoxia Induced Cell Injury

Mechanism of Hypoxia Induced Cell Injury: Hypoxia occurs when a cell receives insufficient oxygenation due to a lack of blood supply to a tissue due to thrombosis. Hypoxia can be caused by haemorrhage when the blood supply is interrupted or when the blood is not sufficiently oxygenated, as in cardiorespiratory failure, or when the oxygen-carrying … Read more

Pathogenesis of Cell Injury

Pathogenesis of Cell Injury

Pathogenesis of Cell Injury: Damage to cells can be either reversible or irreversible. The cellular reaction may be adaptive, and homeostasis is maintained, depending on the severity of the injury. When the degree of the injury (stress) exceeds the cell’s ability to repair itself, cell death occurs. The time of exposure to a damaging stimulus … Read more

Etiology of Cell Injury

Etiology of Cell Injury

Etiology of Cell Injury: Cell damage is a series of events that occur when the adaptive capability of a cell is pushed to its maximum or when no adaptive response is conceivable. Physical, chemical, viral, biological, immunological, and nutritional cellular problems can all contribute to this. A) Acquired cause–Etiology of Cell Injury Acquired causes of … Read more

Cell injury


Cell injury is the common denominator in almost all diseases. It is defined as “an alteration in cell structure or biochemical functioning, resulting from some stress that exceeds the ability of the cell to compensate through normal physiologic adaptive mechanisms”. Cell injury results when cells are stressed so severely that they are no longer able … Read more

What is cellular adaptation


Adaptation refers to the process by which a system seeks to restore or maintain homeostasis. Adaptive mechanisms may also be referred to as compensatory mechanisms, homeostatic mechanisms, control mechanisms, and regulatory mechanisms. Although adaptation may be physiological, psychological, or behavioral, in the system’s terminology, adaptive mechanisms are examples of feedback to the system and may … Read more