Mechanism of Hypoxia Induced Cell Injury: Hypoxia occurs when a cell receives insufficient oxygenation due to a lack of blood supply to a tissue due to thrombosis. Hypoxia can be caused by haemorrhage when the blood supply is interrupted or when the blood is not sufficiently oxygenated, as in cardiorespiratory failure, or when the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced, as in carbon monoxide poisoning.
The first line of defense against hypoxia is the cell’s aerobic respiration or oxidative phosphorylation. Lack of ATP causes the cell to lose its ability to maintain its ion-transport mechanisms, causing the cell to swell. If the hypoxia persists, the cell membrane will be severely damaged, and the cell will die.
Also read: Pathogenesis of Cell Injury