Classification of suppository bases

suppository bases

Suppositories are solid dosage forms of a medicament for insertion into body cavities other than the mouth. They may be inserted into the rectum, vagina, or nasal cavity. Suppositories are available in different shapes, sizes, and weights. Suppositories are used to produce local, systemic, and mechanical action. Suppository Bases: These are used to prepare suppositories … Read more

Suppositories, preparation of suppositories

Suppositories, preparation of suppositories

Suppositories: “Suppositories are semisolid dosage forms of a medicament for insertion into body cavities other than mouth”. Preparation of suppositories Suppositories are prepared by the following methods Rolling method: It is an ancient method of preparing suppositories. The suppository base is rolled and then the desired shape is given with the hand. This is not … Read more

Method of preparation of paste

Paste are prepared similarly to the process of ointment. That is: 1. Trituration Method 2. Fusion Method The trituration method is used mainly in those cases where the base is liquid (or) semi-solid. The fusion method is used when the base is semi-solid (or) solid. (i) Trituration method: Already explained in the ointment topic. (ii) … Read more

Preparation of ointment

Preparation of ointment

Ointment Preparation of ointment: Ointments are soft and semi-solid preparations meant for external application to the skin (or) mucous membrane. They usually contain a medicament, dissolved, suspended (or) emulsified in an ointment base. These are used for emollient and protective purposes. Eg: Compound benzoic acid ointment, calamine ointment, etc. Methods of Preparation of Ointment 1. … Read more

Evaluation of the stability of suspensions

stability of suspensions

The following method are commonly used for evaluating the physical stability of suspensions Methods of Physical Stability of Suspensions Sedimentation Method The measurement of sedimentation volume is the most important parameter in the evaluation of the stability of suspensions. it is determined by keeping a measured volume of the suspension in a graduated cylinder in … Read more

Formulation of Suspension

Suspension are the biphasic liquid dosage form of medicament in which finely divided solid particles ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns are dispersed in a liquid (or) semisolid vehicle. Good qualities of a suspensions Formulation of Suspension Thickening agents are classified into three major groups: Polysaccharides: two types of polysaccharides are used a. Natural Polysaccharides: … Read more

What is primary emulsion

primary emulsion

Primary emulsion: The emulsion is prepared by taking oil, water, and gum, with rapid trituration until a clicking sound is produced and the product becomes white. At this stage, the emulsion is called primary emulsion. it can be prepared either by dry gum method or wet gum method. Types of emulsion and definition An Emulsion … Read more

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion: The Following tests are used to distinguish between o/w and who emulsions. 1. Dilusion Test The emulsion is diluted with water. In case the emulsion remains stable after its dilution it is o/w emulsion. The w/o emulsion breakdown on the addition of water, but is stable on the addition of oil. … Read more

Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

diagnosis of GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. According to the Montreal definition of GERD, GERD can be classified into esophageal and extraesophageal syndromes (Fig. 1). Patients with GERD can present with typical or atypical symptoms. If there is evidence … Read more