Paste are prepared similarly to the process of ointment. That is:
Table of Contents
1. Trituration Method
2. Fusion Method
The trituration method is used mainly in those cases where the base is liquid (or) semi-solid. The fusion method is used when the base is semi-solid (or) solid.
(i) Trituration method: Already explained in the ointment topic.
(ii) Fusion method: Already explained in ointments topic.
Gels are semi-solid preparations, meant for external application to the skin. Gels are transparent (or) translucent, and non-greasy in nature. They are mainly used as lubricants.
Gels are prepared by dispersion of small and large molecules suspended in an aqueous medium, thickened with a gelling agent.
Liniments are liquid and semi-solid preparations meant for application to the skin. Liniments are usually applied to the skin “with friction” and “rubbing” on the skin. Generally, liniments are used for analgesic, rubefacient, soothing, and counter-irritant effects. It should not be applied to broken skin.
Eg: Camphor liniment, Ammoniated camphor liniment.
Lotions are liquid preparations, meant for external application without friction”. They are applied directly to the skin with the help of some absorbent material such as cotton wool, and gauze soaked in it.
Lotions are used for cooling effects and soothing antiseptic purposes.
Eg: Calamine lotion, salicylic acid lotion.