Nasal preparations are Nasal drops, nasal sprays, nasal powder, and nasal washes.
Nasal drops: Nasal drops are monophasic liquid dosage forms, the aqueous solutions of drops, instilled into the nose with the help of a dropper.
The oil vehicle is not used for preparation, it is used for long periods it inhibits the movement of cilia in the nasal mucosa, which leads to lipoid pneumonia. Nasal drops should be isotonic with 0.9% sodium chloride having neutral pH and viscosity similar to nasal secretion, using 0.5% methylcellulose.
Eg: Ephedrine nasal drops.
Nasal sprays: Nasal sprays are monophasic liquid dosage forms, insertion to nostrils. They reduce nasal congestion and treat infections. They are applied using an atomizer (or) plastic squeeze bottle for coarse droplets divided into small ones. These sprays should be isotonic and buffered at pH 6.2 they are used for antibiotics and antihistamines.
Nasal powder: Nasal powders are intended for insufflations into the nostrils, by using a special device.
Nasal washes: Nasal washes are generally aqueous solutions intended for irritation of the nostrils.
These are applied to injured parts (or) before surgical operations.
Also, read: What are the types of ointment
Ear Preparations: Ear Drop Ear drops are monophasic liquid dosage forms. These are solutions of drugs that are instilled into the ear with a dropper.
Ear drops are used to clean of ears, softening of wax, and treating of infections. They are generally prepared in water, glycerin, propylene glycol, etc. Eg: Sodium bicarbonate ear drop, phenol ear drop.