Method of preparation of paste

Paste are prepared similarly to the process of ointment. That is: 1. Trituration Method 2. Fusion Method The trituration method is used mainly in those cases where the base is liquid (or) semi-solid. The fusion method is used when the base is semi-solid (or) solid. (i) Trituration method: Already explained in the ointment topic. (ii) … Read more

Preparation of ointment

Preparation of ointment

Ointment Preparation of ointment: Ointments are soft and semi-solid preparations meant for external application to the skin (or) mucous membrane. They usually contain a medicament, dissolved, suspended (or) emulsified in an ointment base. These are used for emollient and protective purposes. Eg: Compound benzoic acid ointment, calamine ointment, etc. Methods of Preparation of Ointment 1. … Read more

Evaluation of the stability of suspensions

stability of suspensions

The following method are commonly used for evaluating the physical stability of suspensions Methods of Physical Stability of Suspensions Sedimentation Method The measurement of sedimentation volume is the most important parameter in the evaluation of the stability of suspensions. it is determined by keeping a measured volume of the suspension in a graduated cylinder in … Read more

Formulation of Suspension

Suspension are the biphasic liquid dosage form of medicament in which finely divided solid particles ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns are dispersed in a liquid (or) semisolid vehicle. Good qualities of a suspensions Formulation of Suspension Thickening agents are classified into three major groups: Polysaccharides: two types of polysaccharides are used a. Natural Polysaccharides: … Read more

What is primary emulsion

primary emulsion

Primary emulsion: The emulsion is prepared by taking oil, water, and gum, with rapid trituration until a clicking sound is produced and the product becomes white. At this stage, the emulsion is called primary emulsion. it can be prepared either by dry gum method or wet gum method. Types of emulsion and definition An Emulsion … Read more

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion: The Following tests are used to distinguish between o/w and who emulsions. 1. Dilusion Test The emulsion is diluted with water. In case the emulsion remains stable after its dilution it is o/w emulsion. The w/o emulsion breakdown on the addition of water, but is stable on the addition of oil. … Read more

Classification of Emulsifying agents


Emulsifying agents: An emulsion is a biphasic liquid dosage form in which one of the liquids is broken down into minute globules each surrounded by thin layers of emulgent. The liquid broken down is called the dispersed phase and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the continuous phase. They are two … Read more

Define emulsion, describe the preparation of emulsion

What is Emulsion? The emulsion is a biphasic liquid preparation containing two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed as minute globules into the other. The liquid which is converted into minute globules is called the ‘dispersed phase’ and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the ‘continuous phase’. Preparation of Emulsions … Read more



Elixir are liquid oral dosage forms. These are lear sweetened, aromatic, hydro-alcoholic liquids intended for oral use. Elixirs contain, ethyl alcohol, water, glycerin, or propylene glycol, a flavoring agent, and preservative. Types of elixir Method of preparation of an elixirs Elixirs are prepared by dissolving the ingredients in a suitable vehicle with continuous stirring. Adjust … Read more