Nephron, it’s different parts and function

Structural and functional unit of kidney is the nephron and there are about 1 million nephrons in the kidney.

Each nephron consists of

  1. Bowman’s capsule
  2. Glomerulus
  3. Proximal convoluted tubule
  4. Loop of Henle
  5. Distal convoluted tubule
  6. Collecting duct
  7. Duct of bellini

Bowman’s capsule: The cavity of this capsule is occupied by a network of blood capillaries which collectively from a structure called glomerulus.

Glomerulus: It is a tuft of capillaries with an afferent capillary coming in from the circulation and an enterent capillary going out into the circulation. Glomerus acts as ultra-filter.

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT): It is limed by cubical cells. These cells are active and secrete some enzyme like carbonic-anhydrase which helps in the maintenance of acid base balance in the blood.

Henle’s loops: It is a U-shaped tube and has a descending limb and ascending limb. Loop of Henle is physiologically important because it reabsorbs a number of important substances that are filtered by the glomerulus into the blood.

Distal convoluted Tubule: These are limb by cuboidal cell. The absorption of Na+ is under the control of aldosterone which takes place in this part of nephron.

Collecting duct: They are lined by cuboidal cells. Collecting tubules of nephron unite together to form one straight tube.

Duct of Bellini: This arises from the final combination of many straight tubules and finally drains into apex of the pyramid of the kidney.

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