General introduction to pathophysiology.


Pathophysiology is the scientific study of the structure and function of the body in diseases. It deals with the etiology (cause of diseases) mechanism effect and nature of diseases.


Types of Pathology

  1. General Pathology
  2. Systemmic pathology

General Pathology

General Pathology deals with fundamental cellular and tissue response to the pathogen.

Systemic pathology

systemic pathology examines the particulate response of specialized cells or organs.

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a patient is a person suffering from a disease.


it is a characteristic change in tissue produced due to disease in human beings or experimental animals.


it is a study of the causes of disorders.


it is a mechanism by which are produced.


these are fundamental changes tissue and organ felt by the patient.

Branches of pathophysiology are as follows

  1. Histopathology
  2. Experimental Pathology
  3. Immunology
  4. Cytology
  5. Geographic Pathology
  6. Genetic Pathology


histopathology used synonymously with anatomic pathology, pathologic anatomy, morbid anatomy, or tissue Pathology, is the classic method of study and still the most useful one which has stood the test of time. The study includes structural changes observed by naked eye examination referred to as gross or macroscopic changes.

Experimental Pathology

This is defined as the production of diseases in the experimental animal and the study of morphological changes in organs after sacrificing the animal.


Detection of abnormalities in the immune system of the body comprises immunology and immunopathology.


It includes the study of cells shed off from the lesion and fine-needle aspirations cytology of superficial and deep-seated lesion for diagnosis.

Genetic Pathology

this is the branch of Human genetics that deals with the relationship between heredity and disease.

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