Disorders of kidney

  1. Cystitis: Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder it is more common in woman than in men because the female urethra and microbes can more easily enter the bladder, the symptoms of cystitis include increase urinary frequency, burning urgency, dysuria and haematuria. If the infections is sever the patient may have chills and fever.
  2. Renal hypertension: An ischaemic diseased kidney with decreased blood supply and oxygen secretes a hypertensinogen substance called angiotensin which converts to active angiotensinogen and raises the blood pressure this is called renal hypertension.
  3. Urethritis: This is the inflammation of the urethra. A common causes is Neisseria gonorrhoea spread by sexual intercourse directly to the urethra in the male and indirectly from the perineum in the female.
  4. Renal calculi: Calculi (stone) formation in the urinary tract is caused due to the precipitation of salts in the urine. Normally these salts remain in solutions, however if urine tends to the alkaline stone formation may occur. Patients frequently have pyuria, urinary retention is seen if seen if the stone is lodged in ureter.
  5. Pyelitis: it is the inflammation of the Renal pelvis, often due to E.coli, bacteria is more common in women than in men.

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