HISTORY: The science of therapeutic drug monitoring grew out of the recognition that certain drugs have a narrow therapeutic range. The concentration above the upper limit of the range, the drug can toxic and below the lower limit range, the drug is ineffective because all patients will not have same response, hence clinical pharmacology departments. … Read more


DEFINITION: (INTENSITY OF DRUG USE)Medication adherence is defined as the degree to which persons or patients behaviorcorresponds with agreed recommendations from a health care provider.It refers to the intensity of drug use during the duration of therapy which has gratereffects on health than improvements in specified medical therapy.TREATMENT > ADHERENCE > OUTCOMESINTRODUCTION: Adherence to therapies … Read more


IntroductionPatient Medication history interviews help the pharmacist to establishrapport with the patient, commence preliminary counseling and help todevise an ongoing pharmaceutical care planSources: Patient, medication records from the hospital and other sources.Goals To gather information to be utilized to case discussion Compare medication profiles with the medication administrationrecord and investigate discrepancies Verify medication histories taken … Read more

Medication History

DEFINITION Medication history is a detailed, accurate, and complete information ofall the prescribed and non prescribed medications that a patient had taken orcurrently taking in a hospital, ambulatory, or OP care.It identifies patient’s needs and helps to improve the efficiency of medication byrendering medication errors and concerns of illness and treatment.It provides valuable information about … Read more

Introduction to solubility, (quantitative terms qualitative terms and IUPAC)

In quantitative term the solubility is defined as ” At a specific temperature, maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in an amount of solvent.” In qualitative term solubility can be defined as when salute (it may be solid liquid or gaseous) is to be dissolve in solvent (the solvent may be solid liquid … Read more

Adverse drug reaction and management

Definition: Adverse drug reactions refer to any unexpected, undesired or excessive response to amedicine or a drug for diagnosis and therapy of a disease.These reactions can start soon after the intake of medicine or up to two weeks afterstopping the medicine.They can lead to serious conditions such as anaphylaxis reactions (Whole body ex:Fainting, dizziness, flushing, … Read more

Hospital pharmacy management

DEFINITION: Hospital pharmacy is defined as actual practice of pharmacy in a hospital. In this department the drugs are procured, preserved, stored, compounded, assayed, manufactured, dispensed, packed and distributed to inpatients and outpatients by professionally compititent and legally qualified pharmacists. Here pharmacist’s advice patients, physicians and other health care professionals on selection of doses, drug … Read more

Organisation of hospital

A hospital is composite organization of various specialities. The governing body has total accountabilitywithin the organization.Hence governing body has its own internal organization consisting of a president or chairman, vice￾chairman, secretary and the treasurer.Their main motto is to take overall responsibilities for proper functioning of hospitals to provideadequate services to the patients at low cost … Read more