Liver : The liver is the largest gland in the body weighing around 1-2.3 kg it is situated in the upper part of abdominal cavity below the diaphragm. The liver is completely covered by peritoneum, and has 4 lobes namely right lobe, left lobe,quadrate lobe ,and caudate lobe.
The portal vein enters carrying the blood from the stomach , spleen,pancreas,and the small and large intestine.
The hepatic arteries carry arterial blood,the right,and the left hepatic ducts leave,carrying bile from the liver to the gall bladder.
Function of liver :
Carbohydrate metabolism :
- All monosaccharides are converted into glucose in the liver.
- it actively participates in blood glucose regulation
- The liver is a seat for Neoglycogeneses ,Glycogenesis,Glycogenolysis.
- lactic acid,pyruvic acid,and glycerol are converted to glucose and glycogen in the liver.
- Synthesis of fats from carbohydrates also take place in the liver.
2. Protein metabolism :
- Liver is the center for deamination of amino acid .
- urea and uric acid formation occurs exclusively in the liver.
- synthesis of plasma protein takes place in the liver.
- fat are synthesised and stored in the liver.
- oxidation of fat by beta oxidation takes place in the liver.
- it is the center for formation of ketones.
4.synthesis of vitamins :
- Vit A and Vit D are stored in the liver.
- synthesis of prothrombin with the help of Vit K takes place in liver.
- Vit B12 and folic acid are stored for haempoesis in the liver.
- carotene is transformed into Vit A in the liver.
5. manufacture of bile:
- bile salt namely sodium taurocholate and glycocholate are synthesised in the liver from cysteine and glycine. These salts carry the bile pigments bilirubin and biliverdin which are transported from the spleen and transferred to gall bladder.
6. Function relating to blood:
- In foetal life RBC are manufacture in the liver.
- Blood coagulation factor are supplied by the liver.
- the liver manufactures albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, and order plasma protein and transport them to blood plasma.
- Many drugs such as nicotine, paracetamol are metabolized by the liver by the help of microsomal enzymes.
- The liver stored , glycogen, vitamin, fat and minerals.
- Heparin that is synthesized from the mast cells of the liver and transported to blood plasma as an anticoagulant to retard blood clotting.
- Reticuloendothelial cells (kapfer cells) manufacturer antibodies in the liver, they protect the body against microbial infections.