Evaluation of the stability of suspensions

stability of suspensions

The following method are commonly used for evaluating the physical stability of suspensions Methods of Physical Stability of Suspensions Sedimentation Method The measurement of sedimentation volume is the most important parameter in the evaluation of the stability of suspensions. it is determined by keeping a measured volume of the suspension in a graduated cylinder in … Read more

Formulation of Suspension

Suspension are the biphasic liquid dosage form of medicament in which finely divided solid particles ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microns are dispersed in a liquid (or) semisolid vehicle. Good qualities of a suspensions Formulation of Suspension Thickening agents are classified into three major groups: Polysaccharides: two types of polysaccharides are used a. Natural Polysaccharides: … Read more

What is primary emulsion

primary emulsion

Primary emulsion: The emulsion is prepared by taking oil, water, and gum, with rapid trituration until a clicking sound is produced and the product becomes white. At this stage, the emulsion is called primary emulsion. it can be prepared either by dry gum method or wet gum method. Types of emulsion and definition An Emulsion … Read more

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion

Identification test for emulsion: The Following tests are used to distinguish between o/w and who emulsions. 1. Dilusion Test The emulsion is diluted with water. In case the emulsion remains stable after its dilution it is o/w emulsion. The w/o emulsion breakdown on the addition of water, but is stable on the addition of oil. … Read more

Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

diagnosis of GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. According to the Montreal definition of GERD, GERD can be classified into esophageal and extraesophageal syndromes (Fig. 1). Patients with GERD can present with typical or atypical symptoms. If there is evidence … Read more

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Epidemiology

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Epidemiology

Introduction of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common gastrointestinal condition in ambulatory settings. In the USA, GERD remains the commonest cause of outpatient hospital visits and economic burden costs around $15-20 billion per year. Studies from the Asian subcontinent have also reported significant absenteeism, loss of work productivity, and weekly … Read more

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease As per the Montreal definition, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition that develops when gastric contents reflux into the esophagus, and cause bothersome symptoms and/or complications. Physiologically, occasional reflux is common, it is considered a disease if it causes symptoms and complications. Symptoms of GERD are classified as esophageal … Read more

Classification of Emulsifying agents


Emulsifying agents: An emulsion is a biphasic liquid dosage form in which one of the liquids is broken down into minute globules each surrounded by thin layers of emulgent. The liquid broken down is called the dispersed phase and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the continuous phase. They are two … Read more

Define emulsion, describe the preparation of emulsion

What is Emulsion? The emulsion is a biphasic liquid preparation containing two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed as minute globules into the other. The liquid which is converted into minute globules is called the ‘dispersed phase’ and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the ‘continuous phase’. Preparation of Emulsions … Read more



Elixir are liquid oral dosage forms. These are lear sweetened, aromatic, hydro-alcoholic liquids intended for oral use. Elixirs contain, ethyl alcohol, water, glycerin, or propylene glycol, a flavoring agent, and preservative. Types of elixir Method of preparation of an elixirs Elixirs are prepared by dissolving the ingredients in a suitable vehicle with continuous stirring. Adjust … Read more